Ceremonial presentations on occasion of chiefly rites or communal events (weddings, funerals, etc.) In Macaronesia this plant has become naturalized, probably as a result of the Portuguese discoveries and is frequently used in the macaronesian diet as an important carb source. Taro is called dasheen, in contrast to the smaller variety of corms called eddo, or tanya in the English speaking countries of the West Indies, and is cultivated and consumed as a staple crop in the region. Today it is known as kolokasi (Kολοκάσι). In Taiwan, taro— yùtóu (芋頭) in Mandarin, and ō͘-á (芋仔) in Taiwanese—is well-adapted to Taiwanese climate and can grow almost anywhere in the country with minimal maintenance. In Bangladesh taro is a very popular vegetable known as kochu (কচু) or mukhi (মুখি). Some species are widely cultivated and naturalized in other tropical and subtropical regions.  Micronutrients include iron, copper, magnesium, potassium, and zinc. It is known as amadumbe (plural) or idumbe (singular) in the Zulu language of Southern Africa. In the Azores taro is known as inhame or inhame-coco and is commonly steamed with potatoes, vegetables and meats or fish.  Taro was later spread to Madagascar as early as the 1st century AD.. C. esculenta is a perennial, herbaceous rodless plant. , Taro were carried into the Pacific Islands by Austronesian peoples from around 1300 BC, where they became a staple crop of Polynesians, along with other types of "taros", like Alocasia macrorrhizos, Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, and Cyrtosperma merkusii. It is usually cooked with small prawns or the ilish fish into a curry, but some dishes are cooked with dried fish. The leaves and stems are not consumed in Lebanon and the variety grown produces round to slightly oblong tubers that vary in size from a tennis ball to a small cantaloupe. Consid-ered a principal agricultural weed in Puerto Rico and present as a weed in Jamaica (Holm et al. It is widely available and is eaten in many forms, either baked, boiled, or cooked into a curry with hilsa or with fermented soybeans called hawai-zaar. It is also used to accompany meats in parrillas (barbecue) or fried cured fish where yuca is not available. The dasheen variety, commonly planted in swamps, is rare, although appreciated for its taste. A loʻi is a patch of wetland dedicated to growing kalo (taro). It was borrowed in Latin as colocasia, hence the genus name Colocasia. Although pesticides could control both problems to some extent, pesticide use in the loʻi is banned because of the opportunity for chemicals to migrate quickly into streams, and then eventually the sea. , Archaeological traces of taro exploitation have been recovered from numerous sites, though whether these were cultivated or wild types can not be ascertained. In Odisha, taro corms are known as saru. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. The leaves and stalks are often traditionally preserved to be eaten in dry season as dawl rëp bai.. This stew is made with pork and beef, shrimp, or fish, a souring agent (tamarind fruit, kamias, etc.) Legend joins the two siblings of high and divine rank: Papahānaumoku ("Papa from whom lands are born", or Earth mother) and Wākea (Sky father). Lately, some restaurants have begun serving thin slices of kolokasi deep fried, calling them "kolokasi chips". Young taro leaves and stems can be eaten after boiling twice to remove the acrid flavor. These taro plants are commonly called khoai ngứa, which literally means "itchy potato". The form taro or talo is widespread among Polynesian languages: taro in Tahitian; talo in Samoan; kalo in Hawaiian; taʻo in Marquesan. Cocoyam is often boiled, fried, or roasted and eaten with a sauce. Harvesting is usually done by hand tools, even in mechanized production systems. Flooded cultivation has some advantages over dry-land cultivation: higher yields (about double), out-of-season production (which may result in higher prices), and weed control (which flooding facilitates). The leaves are shown in mosaics from Israel as a platform, such as a plate or bowl, for serving of fruit to eat. Colocasia esculenta, commonly called taro or elephant ear, is a tuberous, stemless, frost-tender perennial of the arum family (see also calla lily and jack-in-the-pulpit) which typically grows 3-6' tall and as wide. Taro is grown in the Terai and the hilly regions of Nepal. Sustainable Agriculture, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 23:10. The Fiji Ministry of Agriculture and the Land Resources Division of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) are researching pest control and instigating quarantine restrictions to prevent the spread of the pest. They are the most important and the most preferred among the four, because they were less likely to contain the irritating raphides present in the other plants.  Taro is found widely in tropical and subtropical regions of South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea, and northern Australia and is highly polymorphic, making taxonomy and distinction between wild and cultivated types difficult. Supermarket varieties range from about the size and shape of a brussels sprout to longer, larger varieties the size of a football. Today this practice is no longer popular in Vietnam agriculture. Another common method of preparing taro is to boil, peel then slice it into 1 cm (1⁄2 in) thick slices, before frying and marinating in edible "red" sumac. Like most root crops, taro and eddoes do well in deep, moist or even swampy soils where the annual rainfall exceeds 2,500 mm (100 in). The federal government has estimated that nearly 25 percent of the 20,000 plant species native to North America are at risk of extinction, many of these through habitat loss. <, Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia, "Colocasia esculenta (L.) 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Ahupuaʻa means "pig altar", and was named for stone altars with pig head carvings that marked the boundaries of each Hawaiian land division. Taro stems are often used as an ingredient in yukgaejang (육개장). Taro is always prepared boiled. Colocasia is a tender perennial that cannot survive winter months in many places. 'lotus root') is the origin of the Modern Greek word kolokasi (κολοκάσι), the word kolokas in both Greek and Turkish, and kolkas (قلقاس) in Arabic. In Haiti, it is usually called malanga, or taro. The leaves are also fried in a split pea batter to make "saheena". In India, taro or eddoe is a common dish served in many ways. Taro grows abundantly in the fertile land of the Azores, as well as in creeks that are fed by mineral springs. Colocasia (family Araceae) A genus of giant, rhizomatous (see RHIZOME) herbs, which includes C. esculenta (taro, dasheen, or cocoyam). The prominence of the crop there has led it to be a staple of the population's diet. Taro is grown across the country, but the method of cultivation depends on the nature of the island it is grown on. Lard or fried onion oil is then added for fragrance. Ala and olhu ala are still widely eaten all over the Maldives, cooked or steamed with salt to taste, and eaten with grated coconut along with chili paste and fish soup. Taro was consumed by the early Romans in much the same way the potato is today. Brown, Deni. The English term taro was borrowed from the Maori language of New Zealand when Captain Cook first observed plantations of Colocasia tubers there in 1769. For example, at the Kursi church mosaic. It was used in place of potatoes and dried to make flour. The Hawaiian laulau traditionally contains pork, fish, and lu'au (cooked taro leaf). In Trinidad and Tobago, it is called dasheen. Kilkass is a very popular winter dish in Lebanon and is prepared in two ways: kilkass with lentils is a stew flavored with crushed garlic and lemon juice and ’il’as (Lebanese pronunciation of قلقاس) bi-tahini. The appendage is shorter than the male portion. Together they create the islands of Hawaii and a beautiful woman, Hoʻohokukalani (The Heavenly one who made the stars). In Samoa, the baby talo leaves and coconut milk are wrapped into parcels and cooked, along with other food, in an earth oven .  It is sometimes heavily spiced with red hot chilies called siling labuyo. In Uttarakhand and neighboring Nepal, taro is considered a healthy food and is cooked in a variety of ways. In the Sinhala language of Sri Lanka it is called "Kiri Ala" (කිරිඅල). It is also consumed as a dessert after first being steamed and peeled, then fried in vegetable oil or lard, and finally sprinkled with sugar, cinnamon and nutmeg. "Rain, pests and disease shrink taro production to record low". Recently[when?]  In India, it is called arvī (अरबी) in Hindi, kesave (ಕೇಸವೆ) in Kannada, alu (आळू) in Marathi, chempu (சேம்பு) in Tamil, chama (చామ) in Telugu, yendem (ꯌꯦꯟꯗꯦꯝ) in Meitei, venti (वेंटी) in Konkani, chēmbŭ (ചേമ്പ്) in Malayalam, and banakochu (বুনোকচু) in Bangla. The "child" and "grandchild" corms (cormels, cormlets) which bud from the parent satoimo, are called koimo (子芋) and magoimo (孫芋), respectively, or more generally imonoko (芋の子). A contemporary Hawaiian diet consists of many tuberous plants, particularly sweet potato and kalo. Taro is a popular dish in the hilly region. Gram flour, salt, turmeric, red chili powder made into paste and stuffed inside a roll of green leaves. Taveuni now exports pest-damage-free crops. It is also an indispensable ingredient in preparing dalma, an Odia cuisine staple (vegetables cooked with dal). The uplands produce crops like sugar cane and sweet potatoes, while the lowlands provide taro and fish. In Maharashtra, in western India, the leaves, called alu che paana, are de-veined and rolled with a paste of gram flour. In Shimla, a pancake-style dish, called patra or patid, is made using gram flour. Timber Press, Oregon. This meal is still prepared for special occasions and especially on Sunday. Taro, (Colocasia esculenta), also called eddo or dasheen, herbaceous plant of the family Araceae. A similar plant in Japan is called satoimo (里芋、サトイモ, literally "village potato"). the result is a perfect sticky rice with excellent taste. Similar dishes are prepared from the long root-like structures called kosu thuri. 2006. Various parts of the plant are eaten by making different dishes. In the Brazilian Portuguese of the hotter and drier Northeastern region, both inhames and carás are called batata (literally, "potato"). It is one of the healthiest vegetables that you can eat. Common preparations include cooking with curry, frying, and boiling. The variety known as eddoe is also called Chinese tayer. In Australia, Colocasia esculenta var. In Asia, average yields reach 12.6 t/ha (5.6 short ton/acre). Native Plant Alternatives to Colocasia esculenta (Taro) Colocasia esculenta (Taro) is listed in the Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States.  It is dasheen in Trinidad and Tobago, Saint Lucia and Jamaica.:23. For gardeners, it is primarily grown as a foliage plant with huge, heart-shaped to arrowhead-shaped, conspicuously-veined, downward-pointing, peltate leaves (to 2' long) on long, stout, succulent stems. As in Maharashtra, the leaves are eaten as a fried snack. "Papa and Wakea. Sun-dried taro leaves are later used in broth and stews. The local crop plays an important role in Hawaiian culture, mythology, and cuisine. Taro leaves and stems are pickled. Leaves and corms of shola kochu and maan kochu are also used to make some popular traditional dishes. . Colocasia esculenta has other names in different languages. It is grown in a patch of land dug out to give rise to the freshwater lense beneath the soil. "Baby" kolokasi is called "poulles": after being fried dry, red wine and coriander seed are added, and then it is served with freshly squeezed lemon. In USDA Zones outside of 7b-10 you should either use this plant as an annual or dig up the tuber after the first frost and overwinter it in a cool dry area (possibly in dry wood shavings or … Taro also features in traditional desserts such as Samoan fa'ausi, which consists of grated, cooked taro mixed with coconut milk and brown sugar. The leaves and stems of certain varieties of taro are also used as a vegetable in Kerala. In Manipur, another north-eastern state, taro is known as pan. After cooking, the saponin in the soup of taro stems and leaves is reduced to a level the hogs can eat. By ancient Hawaiian custom, fighting is not allowed when a bowl of poi is "open". It is called cocoyam in Nigeria, Ghana and Anglophone Cameroon, macabo in Francophone Cameroon, mankani in Hausa language, koko and lambo in Yoruba, and ede in Igbo language. Before the Taiwan Miracle made rice affordable to everyone, taro was one of the main staples in Taiwan.  Taro is available, either fresh or frozen, in the UK and US in most Asian stores and supermarkets specialising in Bangladeshi or South Asian food. Its green leaves, kochu pata (কচু পাতা), and stem, kochu (কচু), are also eaten as a favorite dish and usually ground to a paste or finely chopped to make shak — but it must be boiled well beforehand. Its growth as an export crop began in 1993 when taro leaf blight decimated the taro industry in neighboring Samoa. Anthurium and Zantedeschia are two well-known members of this family, as are Colocasia esculenta and Xanthosoma roseum (elephant ear or ‘ape). The root is also baked (Talo tao) in the umu or boiled with coconut cream (Faálifu Talo). Linnaeus originally described two species, Colocasia esculenta and Colocasia antiquorum, but many later botanists consider them both to be members of a single, very variable species, the correct name for which is Colocasia esculenta. Acra is a very popular street food in Haiti. Taros are often prepared like potatoes, eaten boiled, stewed or mashed, generally with salt and sometimes garlic as a condiment, as part of a meal (most often lunch or dinner). They are usually less expensive, I can… Taro is one of the most ancient cultivated crops. The leaves are sometimes cooked into soups and stews. When kalo was brought to Hawaiʻi, there were about 300 varieties (about 100 remain). The leaves of the taro plant also feature prominently in Polynesian cooking, especially as edible wrappings for dishes such as Hawaiian laulau, Fijian and Samoan palusami (wrapped around onions and coconut milk), and Tongan lupulu (wrapped corned beef). 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